THE MOEPIOLOGT AND EVOLUTION OF THE APES AND MAN, INTRODUCTION. Anthropology (Gr. HvOpairos, man, and 716709, a science) is the science which studies the relations of Man to the lower animals. It differs from Ethnology and Ethnography, which deal respectively with the characters and distribution of the races of mankind. When Anthropology is used in its widest sense, as a study of the natural history of Man, it includes all these branches of knowledge.* The aims of Anthropology in its strictest sense were summarized by Huxley (87) as follows: " The question of questions for mankind — the problem which underlies all others, and is more deeply interesting than any other — is the ascertainment of the place which Man occupies in nature and of his relations to the universe of things. Whence our race has come ; what are the limits of our power over nature, and of nature's power over us ; to what goal are we tending — are the problems which * The term Physical Anthropology, which is now in common use, includes the study of the relations of Man to the lower animals, and all aspects of the structure of the human races, particularly the measurements of the skulls.